TY - JOUR
AU - Yik-Man Chiang
AU - Guo-Fu Yu
PY - 2019/01/13
Y2 - 2019/09/21
TI - Galoisian approach to complex oscillation theory of some Hill equations
JF - MATHEMATICA SCANDINAVICA
JA - MathScand
VL - 124
IS - 1
SE - Articles
DO - 10.7146/math.scand.a-110889
UR - https://www.mscand.dk/article/view/110889
AB - We apply Kovacic's algorithm from differential Galois theory to show that all complex non-oscillatory solutions (finite exponent of convergence of zeros) of certain Hill equations considered by Bank and Laine using Nevanlinna theory must be Liouvillian solutions. These are solutions obtainable by suitable differential field extension constructions. In particular, we establish a full correspondence between solutions of non-oscillatory type and Liouvillian solutions for a particular Hill equation. Explicit closed-form solutions are obtained via both methods for this Hill equation whose potential is a combination of four exponential functions in the Bank-Laine theory. The differential equation is a periodic form of a biconfluent Heun equation. We further show that these Liouvillian solutions exhibit novel single and double orthogonality, and satisfy Fredholm integral equations over suitable integration regions in $\mathbb{C}$ that mimic single/double orthogonality for the corresponding Liouvillian solutions of the LamÃ© and Whittaker-Hill equations, discovered by Whittaker and Ince almost a century ago.
ER -